Economic data describe businesses, industries, economies, and the labor force. Included in this subject area also are income and poverty information for persons, households, and families.
A indicates a resource developed outside of the University of Virginia. These links will open in a new window.
A indicates a resource that is restricted to UVA faculty, students and staff only.
This site is the Census Bureau's premier online data delivery tool, providing the ability to view or download data from the 1990 and 2000 Censuses, annual population estimates, the Economic Census, and more. American Factfinder can produce both tables and maps. Geostat can provide assistance with using this very rich but complicated site, and when appropriate, offer some easier-to-use alternatives in our lab.
Sponsored by the Department of Housing and Urban Development, this ongoing survey collects national, state, and metropolitan level data on the nation's housing. Data cover topics such as apartments, single-family homes, mobile homes, vacant homes, family composition, income, housing and neighborhood quality, housing costs, equipment, fuels, size of housing unit, and recent movers. PDF reports for specific metropolitan areas are posted by the Census Bureau.
This website provides links to micro-level datasets from many developing countries from around the world. The datasets include health and nutrition surveys, Living Standards Measurement Studies (LSMS), World Fertility Surveys, and several firm level surveys. Also included are links to national statistical offices.
This comprehensive website provides statistics by mode of transportation, by subject (safety, infrastructure, energy, etc.), or by agency. Road and highway networks and other geospatial information from the National Transportation Atlas Databases (NTAD), the Federal Highway Administration, and others is also available. Many resources can be mapped online.
The U.S. Census Bureau's site provides access to the 1990 Census datasets (covering demographic, economic, and housing information), reports and bulletins, geographic products, and technical documentation.
The PUMS data contain record-level information for a 1% sample of the 1990 Census population, enabling custom analysis of the 1990 census data. Tools are provided in this Scholars' Lab database to allow for the creation of tables, extracts, and descriptive statistics.
The U.S. Census Bureau's site provides access to the 2000 census datasets (covering demographic, economic, and housing information), subject reports, geographic products, and technical documentation. Data may also be accessed by geography.
A subset of the University of Michigan's ICPSR Data Archive, this site provides access to the Census Population and Housing data. The data files are designed for social science researchers to use in conjunction with statistical software. If you are looking for answers to basic demographic questions or access to population tables, see the American FactFinder.
This page is an index to economic statistics produced by the Bureau, including minority- and women-owned businesses, business size, business by industry and county, building permits, e-commerce, foreign trade, and many other economic statistics. Most data are available annually, some as far back as 1997.
This page, created by the UVA Library for those not familiar with census data, provides an overview of the Census of Population and Housing and links to data sources. Information is provided for the 2000 census products, places to get quick answers, resources for getting data for analysis, and historical information.
This webpage provides access to several historical Canadian Censuses as well as Censuses for particular provinces. Among the data sets available are Canadian Censuses for the years 1851, 1901, and 1911. The Census of Ontario is available for the year 1871 and the Census of Northwest Provinces is available for the year 1906.
The Census CD+Maps series, produced by GeoLytics Inc., provides easy access to US census data from the past several decades. Data cover the entire nation and can be viewed in tabular form, downloaded in many formats, or mapped in GIS-compatible files. Information from the CensusCDs are not online, and the CDs must be used in the Scholars' Lab. However, you can download information and store the files electronically for later use.
The Child Welfare League of America (CWLA) collects and disseminates data on many topics related to the welfare of children. These data are made available through the National Data Analysis System (NDAS) and include data on adoption, child abuse and neglect, child care services, children's health, juvenile justice, out of home care, and population.
This link from the Children's Defense Fund website provides facts and summary statistics for issues related to the welfare of children. These include child care, gun violence against children, No Child Left Behind federal funding, and population and poverty levels taken from the 2000 Census.
The China Data Center at the University of Michigan is a national center designed to advance the study and understanding of China. A primary goal of the Center is the integration of historical, social and natural science data in a geographic information system, where spatial and temporal references is maintained through a relational database. Contains Census 2000 data, statistics, and more.
ALL CHINA DATA CENTER is a professional site founded by All China Commercial Information Network and offering the comprehensive statistics and economic information of China to domestic and overseas clients. The whole database consists of six main channels that are Macro-economy, Imports and Exports ,Industrial Data ,Business Directories, Analysis Reports, Publications.
Compiled by the Darden Business School, this website contains links to useful sites for gathering information on industries or specific companies.
Created and maintained by the University of Virginia Library, this resource provides online access to electronic versions of the 1988 and 1994 County and City Data Books published by the U.S. Census Bureau. Primarily a ranking resource, a wide range of demographic, economic, political, and health topics are covered. Data are available for states, counties, cities, and places. Customized data subsets can be created and displayed or downloaded via ftp.
Created and maintained by the University of Virginia Library, the County Business Patterns data base provides online access to county, state, and national level business data for 1977-2000. Produced by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, these data include number of establishments, payroll (annual and 1st quarter), number of employees, and number of establishments by size class for 2 digit SIC industry groupings.
The Current Population Survey (CPS) is a monthly survey of about 50,000 households conducted by the Bureau of the Census for the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The survey has been conducted for more than 50 years. The CPS is the primary source of information on the labor force characteristics of the U.S. population. The sample is scientifically selected to represent the civilian noninstitutional population. Respondents are interviewed to obtain information about the employment status of each member of the household 15 years of age and older. However, published data focus on those ages 16 and over. The sample provides estimates for the nation as a whole and serves as part of model-based estimates for individual states and other geographic areas. Estimates obtained from the CPS include employment, unemployment, earnings, hours of work, and other indicators. They are available by a variety of demographic characteristics including age, sex, race, marital status, and educational attainment. They are also available by occupation, industry, and class of worker. Supplemental questions to produce estimates on a variety of topics including school enrollment, income, previous work experience, health, employee benefits, and work schedules are also often added to the regular CPS questionnaire.
This website provides access to a dataset compiled by researchers at UCLA and Duke University. The dataset contains annual data on unions, employers, industrial relations and collective bargaining in 20 OECD countries from 1950 to 2000. Countries included are Austria, Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the US, the UK, and New Zealand.
DataFerrett is "a data mining tool that accesses data stored in TheDataWeb through the internet." Developed and supported by the U.S. Bureau of the Census in collaboration with the Bureau of Labor Statistics and other statistical agencies, DataFerrett provides variable-level access to many federal data series including the ACS, AHS, BRFSS, CES, CPS, NHIS, SIPP, and many others. DataFerrett is already installed on computers in the Geostat Lab (go to the Programs folder). From other locations, the software will need to be downloaded and installed.
This website provides access to annual data on expenditures by the Veterans Affairs department by state, county, and congressional district. The data include expenditures on Compensation and Pension, Readjustment (Education) and Vocational Rehabilitation, Insurance, Construction, and Medical and Administration. Data on estimated veteran population for each geographic level is also available.
This service provides access to Monthly, Quarterly and Annual trade data from 1948 forward, as maintained by the International Monetary Fund. Data are provided for about 180 countries and geographic areas. RESTRICTED TO UVA
Billed as an Environmental Information Portal, this site provides data from many different sources relating to environmental and economic development, and social trends around the world. Earthtrends is a product of the World Resources Institute, "an environmental research and policy organization that creates solutions to protect the Earth and improve people's lives." The site contains portals for population, health, and human well-being; economics, business, and the environment; and several more focusing on environmental issues.
EconData.net is designed to help practitioners, researchers, students, and other data users quickly gain access to relevant state and substate socioeconomic data. The site has over 1,000 links to socioeconomic data sources, arranged by subject and provider, and pointers to the Web's premiere data collections. The site "aims to be a convenient, comprehensive first stop for anyone searching among the vast, disparate array of public and private data sources on the Web." EconData.Net is sponsored by the Economic Development Administration as a service to regional data users, and is jointly operated by Impresa, Inc. and Andrew Reamer & Associates, independent economic development consulting firms.
Data aggregated from a variety of sources. Useful for historical series. Variable searching, browsing, charting, and download. This page is meant to be a comprehensive site of free, easily available economic time series data useful for economic research, in particular economic forecasting.
Produced by the US Census Bureau, the Economic Census profiles the US economy every 5 years, from the national to the local level.
The Economic Policy Institute is a nonprofit, nonpartisan think tank that seeks to broaden the public debate about strategies to achieve a prosperous and fair economy.
The Economic Research Service (ERS) is a primary source of economic information and research in the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Available on this website are data pertaining to Farm Economy, Natural Resources & Environment, Rural Economy, Trade & International Markets, and Diet, Health & Safety among others.
Researchers in Economic History can make their datasets available to other professionals and interested scholars by posting them on the EH.Net website. Several data series have been given to EH.Net and are available as downloadable files, while many other titles may be accessed through our Database Directory.
This website provides energy production, price, import,amd export data for the United States and other countries. Types of energy for which data is available include petroleum, natural gas, electricity, coal, nuclear, and renewable and alternative fuels.
Produced by the Statistical Office of the European Communities, Eurostat contains a wealth of statistical information on the demographics, economics, and environment of the European Union. Data are presented in themes such as "Population and social conditions" or "Economy and finance". Extensive information is provided for each theme through tables, data, methodology, and publications. In addition to preformatted tables and reports, a sophisticated data query system permits one to create customized output that can be viewed or downloaded in different formats.
FAOSTAT is an on-line and multilingual database currently containing over 1 million time-series records covering international statistics in Production, Trade, Food Balance Sheets, Fertilizer and Pesticides, Land Use and Irrigation, Forest Products, Fishery Products, Population, Agricultural Machinery, and Food Aid.
This website provides interactive access to Federal Reserve statistical data in a variety of electronic formats. Data from the following four releases are now available: Industrial Production and Capacity Utilization (G.17), Flow of Funds Accounts of the United States (Z.1), Commercial Paper, and Selected Interest Rates (H.15). More releases will be added in the future. The application delivers customized data sets in machine-readable electronic formats (Excel, CSV, XML) or allows for quick downloading of formatted data packages.
The Federal Reserve Board maintains this site which contains financial and economic data and statistics including interest rates, household and business finance, bank assets and liabilities and principal economic indicators.
More than 70 agencies in the United States Federal Government produce statistics of interest to the public. The Federal Interagency Council on Statistical Policy maintains this site to provide easy access to the public.
GLOBUS offers daily trade leads from the Trade Opportunities Program (TOPS), as well as the Department of Agriculture. NTDB provides access to Country Commercial Guides, Market Research reports and other programs.
A PDF document explaining how to use the 2001 Global Development Finance CD-ROM, which contains a database of more than 200 time-series indicators covering the years 1970 through 1999.
Hosted by GeoHive, this environmentally oriented site provides limited demographic and economic data on regions, countries, provinces and cities of the world. While data are limited to fairly basic statistics, a large number of countries and cities are included. The sources linked on the country pages are useful for locating statistical agencies of foreign countries.
This site contains comparative analysis of levels of economic performance and differences in growth rates in the world economy. Includes the Total Economy Database. The Total Economy Database consists of series on Real Gross Domestic Product, Population, Employment, Annual Working Hours, GDP per Capita, GDP per Person Employed, GDP per Hour for at most 99 countries from 1950 onwards), the 60-Industry Database (comprehensive internationally comparable dataset on industrial performance at a detailed industry level for OECD countries and Taiwan. Variables covered include value added in current and constant prices, value added deflators, persons engaged, number of employees, hours worked, labour productivity and labour compensation) and the Industry Growth Accounting.
Harris Interactive Inc., is a market research firm that serves international clients. The Harris Poll is a weekly column on the Harris Interactive Inc. website which is collected both by telephone and online surveys. Subjects of these polls include politics, science and technology, the economy, healthcare, foreign affairs, sports and entertainment, and lifestyles.
Created by the UVA Library using ICPSR data, the Historical Census Data Browser provides online access to summary level data collected in the U.S. Census from 1790 to 1960. Variables describing the population and economy are available for states and counties that existed at the time of each census. The database creates tables for view or print, and provides sorting and limited graphing capabilities.
This site contains an index of publications of the US Department of Housing and Urban Development
This website provides various ways to search for data in the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR). Some unique ways to search include by bibliographic reference, by subject, and by variable.
This helpful website is maintained by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. The site provides links to datasets relevant to countries all over the world. Users can browse or search the archives by country to which the data pertains, author of dataset, or subject of the dataset.
The ITC DataWeb has been an Internet tool primarily for government users which is now being made available to the general public. Data on this site have been compiled from tariff and trade data from the U.S. Department of Commerce, the U.S. Treasury, and the U.S. International Trade Commission.
A product of the U.S. Census Bureau, the International Data Base (IDB) is a computerized data bank containing statistical tables of demographic and socio-economic data for 227 countries and areas of the world.
The IFS database contains time series data on a wide range of financial statistics. Formerly available as a CD-Rom product at UVA, the online interface allows for browsing the database, selecting series of interest, displaying the selected series in a spreadsheet format, and saving the selected series for transfer to other software systems, such as Microsoft Excel®. Most annual data begin in 1948, quarterly and monthly data generally begin in 1957, and most balance of payments data begin in 1970.
This PDF document written by the U.S. Census Bureau provides an overview to Census 2000 data products. Information is made available about population and housing characteristics surveyed in the census. Suitable for printing.
IPUMS-CPS is an integrated set of data from 1962-2003 of the March Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS is a monthly U.S. household survey conducted jointly by the U.S. Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The March survey includes questions relating to income. IPUMS-CPS is microdata - it provides information about individual persons and households.
The Integrated Public Use Microdata Sample USA project provides access to microdata samples of the American population drawn from federal censuses of population and housing. Data are available from the decennial censuses of 1850 to 2000. IPUMS allows you to create downloadable subsets by geography, year, or variable.
The Joint Center was founded in 1970 as a think tank primarily focused on issues of African Americans. This site contains health, education, demographic, and political data.
A service of the International Labor Organization, LABORSTA provides an interface from which to obtain labor data from countries all over the world. Variables include unemployment rates, employment rates, wages, consumer price indices, and public sector data beginning in the mid 1970s.
The Manufacturing and Construction Division (MCD) provides data on key barometers and indicators regarding U.S. economic production and activity. We publish detail statistics by industry and geographic area on employment, wages, inventories, value added, and value of shipments for the Manufacturing, Mining, and Construction Sectors, to name a few. In addition, we provide national and geographic statistics on housing sales, starts, and completions.
This 149 page PDF document, published by the U.S. Census Bureau, provides a detailed history of the Decennial Censuses from 1790 to 2000. Dates of enumeration, sample questionnaires, and instructions to enumerators are included for each Census. A good companion resource to the Historical Census Browsers.
The Missouri Census Data Center has created a family of related applications that provide access to distilled demographic summaries of a wide array of geographic areas based on the results of the 2000 and 1990 decennial censuses.
Lookup tables providing equivalencies between the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification and the 1997 North American Industry Classification System. The service is provided by the US Census Bureau.
Founded in 1920, the National Bureau of Economic Research is a private, nonprofit, nonpartisan research organization dedicated to promoting a greater understanding of how the economy works. The NBER is committed to undertaking and disseminating unbiased economic research among public policymakers, business professionals, and the academic community.
NationMaster is a massive central data source and a handy way to graphically compare nations. There are currently over 1,180 statistics (and growing). With this site you can generate maps and graphs on all kinds of statistics. Good for quick answers, but not as useful for in-depth statistics below the country level.
The PSID is a longitudinal survey of a representative sample of US individuals and the families in which they reside. It has been ongoing since 1968. Core topics include income sources and amounts, poverty status, public assistance income, taxes and other financial matters, family structure and demographic measures, labor market participation, housework time, housing, geographic mobility, socio-economic background, and health. PSID data can be used for cross-sectional, longitudinal, and intergenerational analysis and for studying both individuals and families.
This interactive website allows users to see income figures for workers in selected occupations and housing prices for close to 200 metropolitan areas in the United States. Users can generate bar graphs showing the level of income required to purchase a home in the selected metropolitan area as well as salaries for five occupations.
Quarterly Workforce Indicators measure the performance of the local economy - where jobs are, for what kind of workers, how much workers can expect to make and employers expect to pay them. This online database hosted by the U.S. Census Bureau provides information about job creation and loss, average earnings, and periods of unemployment for specific industries at the local level. A product of the Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics program.
This page contains files designed to make the Census Bureau's Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) easier to access. It was created by the National Bureau of Economic Research and includes a user's guide to SIPP and files in SAS, SPSS, and Stata format with data dictionaries.
Provided by the Bureau of Economic Analysis, REA offers access to state and local area personal income estimates, Gross State Product, and the Regional Impact Model. Both current and historical data are available for most series.
The REIS database provides local area economic data for states, counties, and metropolitan areas for 1969-2000. Statistics in the data base include: personal income and earning variables.
Sponsored by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), SourceOECD Statistics provides online access to international data on finances, health, trade, and other topics. Both OECD and IEA statistics are presented.
Datasets from the State Politics and Policy Quarterly Data Resources
"STAT-USA/Internet, a service of the U.S. Department of Commerce, is a single point of access to authoritative business, trade, and economic information from across the Federal Government." This site provides access to several collections of economic and trade news, including State of the Nation, GLOBUS and the National Trade Data Bank (NTDB), USA Trade Online and EuroTrade Online. Most information is provided in the form of text reports rather than spreadsheet or data query format.
The information contained in this website is a service of the US. Department of Commerce. While it requires a user fee, this site provides business, trade, and economic information from across the Federal Government.
Contains viewable tables and downloadable files covering government financial activity in four broad categories: revenues, expenditures, debt and assets.
HUD USER, an information source for housing and community development researchers and policymakers, has been publishing "State of the Cities," a national urban policy report, since the 1970s. The new data system provides access to online information about population, employment, business, crime, and housing growth at the city level.
State of the Nation provides various finaincial and economic data from throughout the federal government and other related entities. Information available includes consumer price index, gross domestic product, new home sales, local area employment and unemployment, current industry reports, and foreign exchange rates among other things.
PDF files of the printed version of the Statistical Abstract of the United States from 1878 - 2005. The National Data Book contains a collection of statistics on social and economic conditions in the United States. Selected international data are also included.
An English language guide to statistical information about Japan. Statistics available include data on population, agriculture, labor, international trade, housing, education, crime, and commerce.
From the University of Indiana, this site contains data, tables, and thematic maps for Census information for the U.S. and in great detail for the state of Indiana. INDIANA PROFILES includes the Indiana IN Depth overview profiles, as well as detailed profiles for the census and other datasets. Contains comparable indicators for 3,141 counties nationwide. All 50 States. The Maps section contains Maps & Geography Tools, plus maps by region, county, township and tract outline and thematic maps. This is great for looking at rankings and to compare states and counties to one another.
CIS Statistical Universe is the world's most comprehensive access to statistical information from Congressional Information Service, Inc. The service allows users to search summaries of statistical publications, then link to the full-text of selected publications on Statistical Universe and government web sites.
A program of the U.S. Census Bureau, the SIPP is an ongoing longitudinal survey that collects information on income, labor force information, federal assistance program participation and eligibility data, and general demographic characteristics to measure the effectiveness of existing federal, state, and local programs; to estimate future costs and coverage for government programs, such as food stamps; and to provide improved statistics on the distribution of income in the country. The SIPP content is built around a "core" of labor force, program participation, and income questions designed to measure the economic situation of persons in the United States.
OTEA conducts a comprehensive program of data development, dissemination, and research and analysis on international and domestic trade and investment issues to support trade promotion and trade policy responsibilities of Trade Development, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce and U.S. Government organizations and officials. The office also coordinates the trade policy implementation activities of the Trade Development unit.
TheDataWeb is a network of online data libraries, primarily within the Federal Government. Topics include census data, economic data, health data, income and unemployment data, population data, labor data, cancer data, crime and transportation data, family dynamics, and vital statistics data. TheDataWeb makes use of DataFerrett, a downloadable tool for accessing large data sets, which is available on the computers in the Geostat Lab.
A new, state-of-the-art Web tool for accessing U.S. merchandise trade statistics at both the national and state levels. TradeStats Express (TSE) features a user-friendly interface that enables visitors to retrieve, visualize, analyze, print and download trade data with ease. Graphics, data tables, and thematic maps can be custom-tailored to user needs and generated on-the-fly. Data on major geographic regions (e.g., Middle East) and trade preference regions (e.g., NAFTA) are pre-aggregated, permitting quick retrieval. Visitors also can tabulate national trade statistics using any of three major product classification systems (HS, NAICs, or SITC). Presented by the Office of Trade and Economic Analysis.
The U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics site provides links to data on employment, prices and living conditions, compensation & working conditions, productivity & technology, and regional economic resources.
This site provides access to a wealth of information relating to foreign direct investment (FDI) statistics, including aggregate inflows, outflows, and inward and outward stocks of FDI for 196 reporting economies.
UNIDO (United Nations Industrial Development Organization) maintains databases on detailed key industrial statistics with worldwide coverage. Working with the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), UNIDO collects, compiles and disseminates these statistics. This site contains time series data beginning in 1977 on seven selected data items at the 4-digit level of ISIC pertaining to the manufacturing sector, which includes 81 manufacturing categories. The seven data items are: number of establishments, employment, female employment, wages and salaries, output, value added, and gross fixed capital formation.
The UNCDB provides subscription access to 441 statistical series for the 279 member countries of the U.N. Series cover demographic, economic, financial, health, social and other types of variables. Many of the series are historical. The UNCDB provides data availability information by series and country. An excellent source for comprehensive and comparative international data. Restricted to UVA faculty, staff, and students.
The U.N. maintains statistics on demographic, economic, and other types of variables for its member countries. A very complete site with many related links for international data.
Interactive map which displays Census 2000 information for each state. Data available include income, education, gender, ethnicity, and commuting as well as others.
Another user guide to the International Financial Statistics, the principle publication of the International Monetary Fund. This guide was produced by the University of Minnesota. The IFS contains time-series data from 1948.
Maintained by the Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service at the University of Virginia, VASTAT provides access to a range of statistical resources related to Virginia and the US. In addition to the Virginia and US Statistical Abstracts, this site provides access to statistical series on many subjects, particularly in the economic sector. An excellent resource for Virginia data.
UVA's Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service provides demographic data for Virginia's cities and counties. Data from the 1990 and 2000 Census, annual population estimates, the Virginia Statistical Abstract, and school membership data are included. Many tables are provided in Excel format. Charts and analysis are also provided for some subjects.
From the Virginia Department of Forestry.... Contains links to city and county sites that have Property Data Information (some with GIS maps). Most cities and counties in Virginia are listed.
This page contains links to Virginia data produced by the Census Bureau. Information categories include people, business, geography, and other links, and cover multiple years and geographic levels.
Interactive map of Virginia counties and independent cities which provides 2000 US Census information on such topics as demographics, education, race, income, and housing.
An independent firm that specializes in long-term county economic and demographic projections. Databases can be purchased that provide projections as well as historical data at the county level for each state in the U.S.
WDI provides direct access to more than 700 development indicators, with time series for 208 countries and 18 country groups from 1960 to 2006, where data are available.
The World Development Indicators CD-ROM contains a database of more than 500 time series spanning from 1960 to the current year, where data are available. It also contains all the tables from the WDI book and the Atlas, including those covering the 200 or so indicators for which only a single year of data is available.
The WIDER houses the World Income Inequality Database (WIID) which contains data on income inequality for developed, developing, and transition economies. Variables in the WIID include Gini coefficients, quintile and decile shares, means and medians, and the income shares of the richest 5% and the poorest 5%.
The World Resources Institute is an independent center for policy research and technical assistance on global environmental and development issues. WRI's mission is to move human society to live in ways that protect Earth's environment and its capacity to provide for the needs and aspirations of current and future generations. Widely recognized as an authoritative assessment of the world's natural resource base, each World Resources report is a definitive reference on the global environment with the latest information on essential economic, population, and natural resource conditions and trends for nearly every country in the world.
This data collection contains economic and social indicators for 244 indicators for 189 countries. Included are economic variables such as gross national product, gross domestic product, value added in agriculture, industry, manufacturing, and services, v alue of imports and exports, private consumption, government consumption, gross national savings, gross domestic savings, government deficit or surplus, net direct foreign investment, repayments of long-term loans, public long-term debt, international res erves excluding gold, and gold holdings at London market price.